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Mrs. Fonseca is trained as an economist and has a doctoral degree in water sciences. She has over twenty-three years of experience in development cooperation and non-profits of which twenty in the water and sanitation sector.

Mrs. Fonseca has pioneered sector development on the understanding of life-cycle costs and financing. She was the WASHCost Director (2008-2013), a large-scale initiative to identify the long-term costs of sustaining rural and peri-urban water and sanitation services. She has been part of the IRC management team and managed the International and Innovation programme from 2012-2019.

At present, she is the Director of Watershed (2016-2020), a 5-year strategic programme to strengthen the ability of citizens to hold governments and service providers accountable for the services they deliver.

She is an Associate of IRC and is available for consultancy assignments. Over the past 20 years she has trained, assessed, evaluated and provided technical support to over 50 clients. For more details contact IRC Consult.

Since 2019 she has her own company, Pulsing Tide.

Key activities

2016 - present Director Watershed: empowering citizens

A five-year strategic partnership with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands to strengthen the capacity of civil society organisations to hold governments and service providers accountable in Mali, Ghana, Uganda, Kenya, Bangladesh, India, The Netherlands and internationally.  Watershed lobby and advocacy activities specifically focus on the identification and inclusion of the marginalised in WASH governance. Watershed focuses on areas where water resources are scarce or contested and where environmental management is at the core of the WASH sustainability challenge.

2012-2019 International Programme

Focusing mainly on supporting change processes through advocacy and lobby at international and national level, ensuring the four goals of IRC business plan are met. Namely: sector adoption of service delivery approach, sector adoption of a learning and adaptive approach, improved aid effectiveness and improved inter-sectoral dialogue and planning alignment.

2008-2013 WASHCost Project Director

WASHCost, a five-year initiative funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, has worked with a team of over 100 sector professionals in four countries (Ghana, Burkina Faso, India and Mozambique) to identify the long-term costs of sustaining rural and peri-urban water and sanitation services. WASHCost has embedded the concept of life-cycle costing with donors, national and local governments and NGOs, so that services continue to meet national standards reliably for generations.

2012-2013 Co-Chair JMP/WHO Post-2015 Water Working Group

Together with WaterAid, we have brought together a large group of experts and governments to reflect and review options for the future sustainable development framework that will replace the existing MDGs. Catarina has brought to this platform the experience of the WASHCost team in testing many of the proposed indicators for water, sanitation and hygiene at scale.

Catarina works mainly in Africa (Mozambique, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Cape Verde, Ethiopia, Uganda, Sierra Leone, Tanzania) and Asia (India, Bangladesh) and provides advisory work for several governments, multilateral and bilateral agencies, foundations, development banks and other international organisations on all continents.

Background

Before IRC, Catarina worked with a Portuguese NGO for three years on participatory approaches in urban slums with a gender and equity emphasis.

Catarina holds a PhD in Water Sciences (Cranfield University, UK), a MA in Development Studies specialised in agriculture and rural development (International Institute of Social Studies, The Netherlands) and was originally trained as an Economist (MSs, Lisboa School of Economics and Management, Technical University, Portugal).

Languages

Portuguese, English, Spanish, French and basic Dutch

Selected publications

Mrs. Fonseca writes frequent blogs and thought pieces for the IRC website and sector publications. She has written and co-authored more than 100 briefing notes, working papers, journal papers and books. Complete list available on request.

Pories, L., Fonseca, C. and Delmon V, 2019. Mobilising Finance for WASH: getting the foundation right. Water.org, IRC and The World Bank.

Van de Lande, L. & Fonseca, C. 2018. Global Review of National Accountability Mechanism for SDG6. London: End Water Poverty.

Humphreys, E., Kerk, van der, A., Fonseca, C. 2018. Public finance for water infrastructure development and its practical challenges for small towns. Water Policy 20 (S1), 100-111

Fonseca, C., Pories, L. 2017. Financing WASH : how to increase funds for the sector while reducing inequalities : position paper for the Sanitation and Water for All Finance Ministers Meeting. The Hague: IRC

Fonseca, C. 2016. No Reason to Be Optimistic on World Water Day. The Huffington Post

Fonseca, C., Defere, E. 2016. Assessing Value for Money of WASH services in small towns : establishing a framework for analysis of ONEWASH Plus Programme interventions. Ethiopia: UNICEF

Acioly, A., Kerk, van der, A., Fonseca, C. 2016. The Dutch Water Bank : a useful model for developing countries?. The Hague: IRC

Rognerud, I., Fonseca, C., 2016. Government investment in sanitation: 2016 state of play. The Hague: IRC

Fonseca, C. and Rognerud, I. 2015. Financing urban sanitation: public finance at national level. 2015. Briefing Note for Susana Forum The Hague: IRC

Fonseca, C. and Moriarty, P. 2015. “We only have five years to achieve clean water and safe toilets for all” Article in The Guardian 1st July 2015

Fonseca, C. 2015. Domestic Resource Mobilisation and WASH in the financing for development agenda. Finance Brief 4. Public Finance for WASH.

Snehalatha, M., Fonseca, C., Rahman, M., Uddin, R., Ahmed, M., Sharif, A.J.. 2015. School WASH programmes in Bangladesh : how much does it cost? : applying the life-cycle costs approach in selected upazilas. The Hague: IRC

McIntyre, P., Casella, D., Fonseca, C., and Burr, P. 2014. Priceless! Uncovering the real costs of water and sanitation. The Hague: IRC

Fonseca, C., Nyarko, K., Uandela, A. and Norman, G., 2014. Sustainable financing in Cross, P. and Coombes, Y., Sanitation and Hygiene in Africa: where do we stand? Analysis from the AfricaSan Conference, Kigali, Rwanda. London: IWA Publishing

Kayser, G., Moriarty, P., Fonseca, C. and Bartram, J., 2013. Domestic water service delivery indicators and frameworks for monitoring, evaluation, policy and planning: a review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 10 (10):4812-35

Burr, P. & Fonseca, C. 2013. Applying a life-cycle costs approach to water: Costs and service levels in rural and small town areas in Andhra Pradesh (India), Burkina Faso, Ghana and Mozambique. The Hague: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.

Fonseca, C. et al. 2013. Financing capital maintenance of rural water supply systems : current practices and future options. The Hague: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.

Schweitzer, R., Pezon, C., Pinjari, A., Fonseca, C. and Mihelcic, J. 2013. Household expenditure on water services: Financial and economic expenditures of rural and peri-urban households across socio-economic classes and seasons in Burkina Faso. The Hague: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.

Fonseca, C. and Verhoeven, J. 2013. Conference Proceeding: Monitoring the finance needed for sustainable service delivery. The Hague: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.

Trémolet, S., Cardone, R. and Fonseca, C. 2012. Investing in urban water and sanitation systems in Scalr, E., Volavka-Close, N. and Brown, P. The Urban Transformation: Health, Shelter and Climate Change. London: Routledge

Fonseca, C., Norman, G. and Jacimovic R. 2012. Financing water and sanitation for the poor: six key solutions. Discussion paper for the World Water Forum. London: WSUP Water & Sanitation for the Urban Poor.

Jacimovic, R. and Fonseca, C., 2012. Budget tracking approaches in the WASH sector: methods, applicability and examples. Briefing Note for the Dutch Water Alliance.

Burr, P. and Fonseca, C., 2011. Applying the life-cycle costs approach to sanitation. The Hague: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.

Fonseca, C., Franceys, R., et al., 2011. Life-Cycle Costs Approach: Costing sustainable services. The Hague: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.

Fonseca, C., Dubé, A. and Verhoeven, J., 2011. Cost-based decision support tools for water and sanitation. The Hague: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.

Schouten T., Fonseca, C., Lockwood, H. and Moriarty, P. 2011. Taking a service delivery approach to monitoring water supply in low income areas and implications for the Joint Monitoring Programme. Paper for the first Consultation on Developing post-2015 Indicators for Monitoring Drinking-Water and Sanitation. The Hague: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.

Franceys, R., Naafs, A., Pezon, C. and Fonseca, C. 2011. The cost of capital: costs of financing capital expenditure for water and sanitation. WASHCost Briefing Note 1c. The Hague: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.

Smits, S., Verhoeven, J., Moriarty, P., Fonseca, C. and Lockwood, H. 2011 Arrangements and cost of providing support to rural water service providers. WASHCost Working Paper 5. The Hague: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.

Batchelor, C., Smits, S. and Fonseca, C. 2011. Life-Cycle costs of rainwater harvesting systems Occasional Paper 46. The Hague: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.

Moriarty, P. Batchelor, C., Fonseca, C.et al. 2011. Ladders for assessing and costing water service delivery. WASHCost Working Paper 2. The Hague: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.

Potter et al. 2011. Assessing sanitation service levels. WASHCost Working Paper 3. The Hague: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.

Fonseca, C., Franceys, R. & Perry, C. 2010. Guidelines for user fees and cost recovery for rural non-networked water, sanitation delivery. Tunis: African Development Bank.

Singeling, M.,Claasen, F., Casella, D., Daalen van T., Fonseca, C.and Hallett, N. 2009. Smart finance solutions: examples of innovative financial mechanisms for water and sanitation. Amsterdam: KIT Publishers

Fonseca, C. and Minnigh P. 2009. Technology development vs capacity building. Crossfire article in Waterlines, Volume 28, Number 2, April 2009 , pp. 101-107(7). ITDG Publishing.

Fonseca, C, and Casella, D. 2008. Economics in Sustainable Water Management. Training manual and facilitators' guide. CapNet/GWP/EUWI

Fonseca, C. 2007. Quantifying the Cost of Delivering Safe Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Services: An overview of cost ranges and trends, Delft: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.

Fonseca, C., Adank, M., Casella, D., Jeths, M., Linde, P. and Dijkshoorn, B. 2007. Microfinance for water and sanitation and hygiene: an introduction. Delft: Netherlands Water Partnership.

Fonseca, C. & Cardone, R. 2006. Cost estimates, Budgets, Aid and the Water Sector: What's going on? An analysis illustrated with data from 12 Sub-Saharan African countries. Leicestershire: WELL Resource Centre Network for Water, Sanitation and Environmental Health.

Cardone, R. and Fonseca, C. 2006. UN-Habitat report on the water sector in small urban centres: analysis of donor flows to water supply and sanitation services. Kenya: United Nations Human Settlements Programme

Cardone, R. and Fonseca, C. 2006. Financing Facilities.Thematic Overview Paper. Delft: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.

Fonseca, C. 2006 Microfinance for the water sector. WELL fact sheet. Leicestershire: WELL Resource Centre Network for Water, Sanitation and Environmental Health.

Fonseca, C. 2006 Microfinance for sanitation. WELL fact sheet. Leicestershire: WELL Resource Centre Network for Water, Sanitation and Environmental Health.

Fonseca, C. 2006. Financiar o sector da água. Interface Utilities, Lisbon, Portugal: Grupo Algébrica.

Le Borgne, E and Fonseca, C. 2006. Financing Guide for West Africa for ECOWAS, Burkina Faso.

Fonseca, C. and Moriarty, P. 2006. WASH scenarios for 2015: A trends analysis paper. IRC Occasional Paper Series 41. Delft: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.

Fonseca, C. & Cardone, R. 2005. Analysis of cost estimates and funding available for achieving the MDG targets for water and sanitation. Leicestershire: WELL Resource Centre Network for Water, Sanitation and Environmental Health.

Fonseca, C., van Dijk, M.P. and Cardone, R. 2005. Financing the Water Sector. Waterlines, Volume 24, Number 2, October 2005, ITDG Publishing.

Fonseca, C. 2005. Local pro-poor financing mechanisms to meet the water supply Millennium Development target 10. Water Economics Conference at Rethymno University, Crete, Greece

Fonseca, C., Franceys, R. and Schouten, M., 2005. Plugging the Leak: Can Europeans find new sources of funding to fill the MDG water and sanitation gap? Occasional Paper Series 39. Delft: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.

Fonseca, C. 2005. Reforma da estrutura tarifária dos SAAS de Santiago, Cabo Verde. IRC report for Austrian Development Cooperation.

Moriarty, P., Fonseca, C., Smits, S. and Schouten, T. 2005. Background Paper for the Symposium: Learning Alliances for scaling up innovative approaches in the Water and Sanitation sector. Delft: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.

Fonseca, C. 2005. Planning for sustainable cost recovery in community managed water supply and sanitation. Delft: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.

Agbenorheri, M. and Fonseca, C. 2004. Effective financing mechanisms at local level for pro-poor water supply and sanitation. Leicestershire: WELL Resource Centre Network for Water, Sanitation and Environmental Health.

Fonseca, C. and Cardone, R. 2004. Will it cost the earth? An overview of cost estimates for achieving the water and sanitation targets of the Millennium Development Goals. Leicestershire: WELL Resource Centre Network for Water, Sanitation and Environmental Health.

Fonseca, C., Franceys, R. and Schouten, M. 2004. Study on the modalities for a Global Initiative to finance access to water and sanitation for the King Baudouin Foundation

Fonseca, C. 2004. Towards a strategic plan for CFPAS – Centro de Formacao Profissional de Agua e Saneamento. Final Report. June 2004. Maputo, Mozambique

Kouassi-Komlan, E. and Fonseca, C. 2004. Microfinance for water and sanitation in West Africa. 30th WEDC International Conference, Vientiane, Lao PDR.

Cardone, R. & Fonseca, C. 2003. Financing and Cost Recovery. Thematic Overview Paper. Delft: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.

Fonseca, C. 2003. Scaling up Community Management: Challenges and Opportunities 29th WEDC International Conference Harvey, P. (Ed), WEDC, Loughborough University, Environmental Sanitation and Water Services: Towards the Millennium Development Goals Abuja, Nigeria

Fonseca, C. and Nijru, C. 2003. Financing and cost recovery: What happens after construction? 29th WEDC International Conference Harvey, P. (Ed), WEDC, Loughborough University, Environmental Sanitation and Water Services: Towards the Millennium Development Goals Abuja, Nigeria

Fonseca, C. 2003. Cost recovery: taking into account the poorest and systems sustainability. Presented at the International Congress "Watershed Management for Water Supply Systems", New York, USA

Fonseca, C. 2003. Thematic group meeting report Water is Affordable: Taking into Account the Poorest and Systems Sustainability, Delft, The Netherlands.

Fonseca, C. and Bolt, E. 2002. How to Support Community Management of Water Supplies: Guidelines for managers Delft: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.

Bolt, E. and Fonseca, C. 2001. Keep It Working: a field manual to support community management of rural water supply. Delft: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.

Fonseca, C. 2000. Community management: The way forward – report of the international workshop, December 2000, Rockanje, the Netherlands

Fonseca, C. 1999. Le rôle de la femme dans les projects de développement local financés par le FEDER for EU-DG XVI.

Costa, M. and Fonseca, C. 1998. Female participation in Portugal: Particularities and Contradictions. 7th Conference of the International Association for Feminist Economics (IAFE) – Out of the Margin 2 -, University of Amsterdam

Fonseca, C. 1998. How do public interest groups survive: the case of the environmental organisation GEOTA 1st Portuguese Congress of Economic Sociology, Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisbon, Portugal